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Time and Space in Android-based Opportunistic Networks

Author(s): Andre Ippisch, Tobias Küper, Kalman Graffi.
Title: Time and Space in Android-based Opportunistic Networks
Published: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, , pp. 1-7, Cracow, Poland, May 2018
Abstract: Mobile devices like smartphones or other smart objects can create Opportunistic Networks with intermittent node contacts due to their wireless technology and their user's social behavior. In disaster, emergency and censorship situations, or if simply no internet connection is available, Opportunistic Networking can be used to connect devices to each other. If these networks are enabled on off-the-shelf smart devices not only the devices are connected but also the users behind those and messages can be sent to people that are not in the direct surroundings. We attempt to improve our Android-based Opportunistic Network and take a look at time modification and buffer management issues. Syncing the time is a known problem due to the probable lack of a connection to the internet. Since the devices are user-controlled, changes in time have to be noticed and time differences between devices have to be exchanged. Also, we take a look at the special buffer which is not reserved entirely for the network, but is shared with all applications on the device. Consequently, a distinction must be made between persistent and non-persistent user data, and the relay data of our network so that users do not lose data, especially in emergency situations. For this paper, we developed functionality in form of multiple libraries to detect time changes and possible storage shortages on the devices, to synchronize time for our network, and to remove messages in a system in which there is not only one buffer but multiple virtual ones that belong to different applications. We conduct tests which detect when the Android system begins to begins notifying about storage congestion and starts deleting buffer content. With these results, our libraries can improve the drop and queue policies that have to deal with the removal of network messages before user data is deleted.
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