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Hierarchical Location Service for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Author(s): Wolfgang Kiess, Holger Füßler, Jörg Widmer, Martin Mauve.
Title: Hierarchical Location Service for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Published: ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review (MC2R) 8 (4), pp. 47--58, October 2004
Keyword(s): ,
Abstract: Position-based routing has proven to be a scalable and efficient wayfor packet routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. To enable position-basedrouting, a node must be able to discover the location of the node itwants to communicate with. This task is typically accomplished by alocation service. In this paper, we propose a novel location servicecalled HLS (Hierarchical Location Service). HLS divides the areacovered by the network into a hierarchy of regions. The top levelregion covers the complete network. A region is subdivided intoseveral regions of the next lower level until the lowest level isreached. We call a lowest level region a cell. For a given node A,one specific cell is selected on each level of the hierarchy by meansof a hash function. As A changes its position it transmits positionupdates to these responsible cells. If another node wants todetermine the position of A it uses the same hash function todetermine the cells that may hold information about theposition of A. It then proceeds to query the nodes in these cellsin the order of the hierarchy until it receives a reply containing thecurrent position of A. Because of its hierarchical approach HLS ishighly scalable and particularly well suited for networks wherecommunication partners tend to be close to each other. Due to theinherent scaling limitations of ad-hoc networks it is very likely thatmost ad hoc networks will display this property. Furthermore HLS isvery robust to node mobility and node failures since it uses regionsto select location servers and not a chain of mobile nodes as it isthe case, e.g., for the well known Grid Location Service~(GLS). Wedemonstrate these traits by providing extensive simulation data on thebehaviour of HLS in a wide range of scenarios and by using GLS as abenchmark.
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